Space & Time

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Light & Matter

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Seasons

Diagram showing that seasons are caused by the angle at which the Sun’s light hits the Earth.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Tfr000
Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

Earth's tilt

Diagram showing that the Earth is tilted by 23.5 degrees.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Andrea Pittalis
Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

Worldline

Three dimensional plot of length and width against time, showing that the Earth moves in an open spiral as it circles the Sun in space and moves forwards in time.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Stannered
Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem illustrated with a right angled triangle.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Wapcaplet
Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
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Cartesian coordinates

Diagram of coordinates in three dimensions.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Jorge Stolfi
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Comet diagram

Diagram of a comet showing the dust tail and the ion tail.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Comet diagram (orbit)

Diagram of a comet orbiting the Sun. Both tails get bigger the closer they are to the Sun, and both point away from the Sun. The ion tail points directly away, and the dust tail is curved towards the path of the orbit.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Kepler’s first law

Diagram of Kepler’s first law.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Talifero
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Kepler’s second law

Diagram showing a planet moves faster when it is closer to the Sun, and so sweeps out equal areas in equal time no matter their distance.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Talifero
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Earth, Moon, and Sun

Diagram showing how Aristarchus used trigonometry to determine the ratio of the distance to the Earth and Moon (L), and the distance to the Earth and Sun (S), using cos θ equals L divided by S, where θ is the angle.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Andonee
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Big bang

Diagram showing that open universes are saddle shaped. Flat universe are flat, and closed universes are like surface of the outside of a sphere.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Shadows

Diagram showing the effects of a spherical Earth.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

Time zones

Diagram showing that the time on Earth depends on where you are relative to the Sun.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original images by NASA, Dnu72, Dnu72, Dnu72, and Dnu72.
Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

Oblate Earth

Photograph of the Earth. The polar diameter is labelled 12,713 km, and the equatorial diameter 12,756 km.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA
Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

H-R diagram

The H-R diagram - a plot of colour against luminosity for stars. Colour is directly related to temperature and spectral type.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Richard Powell/Penubag
Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

Gravitational red shift

Diagram illustrating that light appears bluer in a stronger gravitational field, and time appears to run slower.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA
Licence: NASA Visible Earth Image Use Policy
Link to high-res image

White dwarf

Diagram showing that white dwarfs are typically not much larger than the Earth.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Milky Way orbit

Diagram of the Milky Way showing the path of the Sun. The Sun moves up and down as it orbits the centre of the galaxy.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA/CXC/M.Weiss
Licence: Chandra Image Use Policy
Link to high-res image

Angular size

Diagram showing how the angular size of an object is related to its diameter divided by its distance.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA/Kennedy
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Superclusters

Diagram showing the position of the Laniakea Supercluster relative to other superclusters.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by Andrew Z. Colvin
Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Link to high-res image

Spacecraft distances

Diagram showing the distances that different objects would have to be to be visible from Earth. A 3 km object could be seen from about twice the distance to the Moon.

Original picture with caption
Image credit: modified by Helen Klus, original image by NASA/Ernie Wright
Licence: Public domain
Link to high-res image

Last updated 11 August 2018 by Dr Helen Klus

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