13.8 billion years ago (Ga)
<10-43 seconds after the big bang - All forces were united.
10-36 seconds after the big bang - Inflation began.
10 seconds after the big bang - Matter and antimatter annihilated, creating light.
20 minutes after the big bang - The nuclei of atoms formed.
380,000 years after the big bang - Electrons combined with nuclei so that light could move freely.
13.60 Ga - The first stars formed.
13.40 Ga - The first galaxies formed.
The Sun formed.
The Earth formed.
The first life on Earth formed.
Bacteria began photosynthesis.
Bacteria began excreting oxygen.
The first multicellular life evolved.
Eukaryotic cells evolved.
Eukaryotes divided into three groups, the ancestors of plants, fungi, and animals.
983 million years ago (Ma)
The Cambrian explosion began. Shortly after this, animals moved from the sea to the land, followed by plants.
The first mass extinction, the Ordovician event, occurred.
Tetrapods, the first four legged animals, evolved.
The second mass extinction, the Devonian event, occurred.
The third mass extinction, the Permian event, occurred.
The first dinosaurs evolved, and survived the fourth mass extinction, the Triassic event.
Plants began to flower.
The fifth mass extinction, the Cretaceous event, occurred, and most dinosaurs became extinct.
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The ancestor of humans branched from the ancestor of chimpanzees.
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Homo habilis evolved.
Homo erectus evolved.
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787,671 years ago (Ya)
Dec 31st 23:40
Language may have developed.
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The first dogs were domesticated.
Dec 31st 23:59
Humans may have formed constellations.
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Humans may have understood addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, and prime numbers.
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Humans created paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, and ceramics.
Cave paintings were made depicting constellations.
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Humans began farming.
Dec 31st 23:59:33
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The first cities formed.
Dec 31st 23:59:35
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Humans began to develop written languages.
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Tapputi recorded chemical experiments.
Dec 31st 23:59:53
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Thales predicted the solar eclipse of 585 BCE.
Dec 31st 23:59:54:10
Pythagoras suggested that the Earth is spherical.
The solar zodiac was formed in Babylon.
Dec 31st 23:59:54:20
Plato developed Socrates' theory of knowledge.
Socrates developed a rationalist theory of knowledge.
Leucippus and Democritus devised the concept of the atom.
Dec 31st 23:59:54:30
Heraclides Ponticus suggested that the Earth rotates.
Aristotle devised a geocentric theory of the universe.
Aristotle claimed that the mind does not have innate ideas.
Dec 31st 23:59:54:40
Eratosthenes measured the Earth's circumference.
Eratosthenes measured the tilt of the Earth.
Euclid discovered the law of reflection.
Archimedes discovered the laws of buoyancy.
Dec 31st 23:59:54:50
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Hipparchus compiled a star catalogue, which mapped the sky with 48 constellations.
Dec 31st 23:59:55:10
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Hero described a primitive steam engine.
Dec 31st 23:59:55:40
Ptolemy developed a geocentric theory of the universe
Ptolemy tried to experimentally derive the law of refraction.
Dec 31st 23:59:55:50
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Brahmagupta was the first to use zero as a number.
Dec 31st 23:59:57:00
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'Abd al-Rahman Al-Sufi observed Andromeda.
Ibn Sahl discovered the sine law of refraction.
Dec 31st 23:59:57:40
Ibn al-Haytham correctly described how perception occurs.
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī showed that acceleration is connected to non-uniform motion.
Dec 31st 23:59:57:50
Ibn Bâjjah suggested that for every force there is a reaction force.
Dec 31st 23:59:58:00
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Theodoric of Freiberg explained how rainbows form via internal reflection.
Dec 31st 23:59:58:30
Dec 31st 23:59:58:40
Ulugh Beg determined the new positions of almost 1000 stars.
Dec 31st 23:59:58:50
Nicolaus Copernicus published a heliocentric theory of the universe.
Taqi al-Din invented the first clocks that measured time in minutes and seconds.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:00
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Galileo Galilei suggested using a pendulum to measure time.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:04
Johannes Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion.
Galileo Galilei observed the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, sunspots, and the depth of the craters on the Moon.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:05
Johannes Kepler published his third law of planetary motion.
Willebrord Snellius rediscovered the sine law of refraction.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:06
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Galileo Galilei published his theory of relativity.
Rene Descartes and Pierre de Fermat invented the Cartesian coordinate system.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:08
Galileo Galilei attempted to determine the speed of light by measuring the time it takes to travel between two observers.
Rene Descartes published his theory of the mind.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:09
Dec 31st 23:59:59:10
Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn's moon Titan.
Christiaan Huygens built the first pendulum clock.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:11
Francesco Grimaldi discovered and coined the term 'diffraction'.
Robert Hooke discovered Jupiter's Great Red Spot.
Robert Hooke showed that a pendulum could be used to measure the force of gravity.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:12
John Wallis suggested that momentum is conserved in a collision.
Jean Richer showed that the force of gravity is stronger at the Earth's poles than at the equator.
Isaac Newton stated that light is made of particles, not waves.
Jean Richer and Giovanni Domenico Cassini calculated the distance between the Earth and the Sun.
Robert Hooke argued that light is made of waves.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:13
Ole Rømer showed that light travels at a finite speed.
Christiaan Huygens argued that light is made of waves.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:14
Isaac Newton published his laws of motion and theory of gravitation.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:15
John Locke developed empiricism.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:16
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Isaac Newton published his most complete theory of light.
George Berkeley developed idealism, the view that physical objects do not exist.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:18
Dec 31st 23:59:59:19
Dec 31st 23:59:59:20
James Bradley proved that the Earth moves.
James Bradley measured the speed of light to be just over 300,000 km/s.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:21
Emanuel Swedenborg suggested that the planets could have once originated from the same mass as the Sun.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:22
Dec 31st 23:59:59:23
David Hume developed the problem of induction, arguing that there is no necessary truth to the idea that the future will resemble the past.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:24
Immanuel Kant suggested that the Solar System was once a large cloud of gas, a nebula, and that some nebulae could be separate 'island universes'.
John Harrison invented the marine chronometer.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:25
Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen.
The nautical almanac was published, with the Greenwich meridian designated 0 degrees longitude.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:26
Dec 31st 23:59:59:27
Carl Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier showed that air is mostly composed of nitrogen and oxygen.
Joseph Priestley created water by igniting hydrogen and oxygen.
William Herschel discovered Uranus.
Immanuel Kant developed a theory of knowledge that combined rationalism with empiricism.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:28
William Herschel mapped the Milky Way.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:29
Pierre-Simon Laplace developed the nebula hypothesis for the formation of the Solar System.
Henry Cavendish 'weighed the Earth'.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:30
William Herschel discovered infrared light.
Alessandro Volta created the first electric cell.
Johann Wilhelm Ritter predicted the existence of ultraviolet light.
Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the largest asteroid in the asteroid belt, Ceres.
William Hyde Wollaston discovered dark lines in the Sun's colour spectrum, known as spectral lines.
Thomas Young provided strong evidence for Christiaan Huygens' wave theory of light when he published the results of his double-slit experiments.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:31
John Dalton suggested that matter is composed of atoms. He predicted that atoms of each element have identical sizes and masses, and atoms of different elements can combine to form molecules.
Thomas Young used the term 'energy' to describe kinetic energy.
Étienne-Louis Malus coined the term 'polariser'.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:32
Joseph von Fraunhofer independently discovered spectral lines.
Thomas Young and Augustin-Jean Fresnel proposed that light waves have a transverse as well as longitudinal component.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:33
Thomas Young and Augustin-Jean Fresnel showed that light waves are entirely transverse.
Gideon Mantell discovered the first dinosaur fossil.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:34
Robert Brown discovered Brownian motion.
Michael Faraday discovered Faraday's law of induction, which was soon utilised in the invention of the electric motor.
Michael Faraday coined the term 'ion' to describe the matter within a solution - like Volta's saltwater - that travels from one electrical conductor to another.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:35
Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described the Coriolis effect.
Friedrich Bessel measured stellar parallax, which could be used to measure the distance to other stars.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:36
Christian Doppler discovered the Doppler effect.
Ada Lovelace was the first to consider the concept of an operating system or software, she is considered to be the world's first computer programmer.
William Parsons showed that some nebulas have a spiral structure, and some are elliptical.
Urbain Le Verrier showed that Mercury's orbit cannot be explained using Newton's equations.
Michael Faraday discovered the Faraday effect, this shows that a magnetic field can cause a ray of polarised light to rotate.
Johann Galle discovered Neptune.
William Lassell discovered Neptune's moon, Triton.
Hippolyte Fizeau showed that the Doppler effect also occurs in light.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:37
Hippolyte Fizeau and Léon Foucault proved Newton's particle theory of light wrong when they showed that light travels faster in air than in water.
William Rankine coined the term 'potential energy'.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:38
Heinrich Geißler invented Geissler tubes, which could be used to make neon signs.
Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution by natural selection.
Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen related the placement of spectral lines to the absorption or emission of different chemical elements.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:39
Julius Lothar Meyer published a periodic table of the elements.
James Clerk Maxwell developed the electromagnetic wave equation of light.
Dmitri Mendeleev published a periodic table of the elements.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:40
Pierre Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke identified areas of the brain associated with different aspects of language.
Asaph Hall discovered Mars' moons, Phobos and Deimos.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:41
George Darwin suggested that the Earth and Moon were once been part of the same molten mass.
Josef Stefan showed that the total energy emitted by a black body is proportional to the forth power of its temperature.
Svante August Arrhenius suggested that when salt is dissolved into water it breaks up into negatively charged chlorine ions (Cl-) and positively charged sodium ions (Na+).
Hans Driesch cloned sea urchins.
Johann Balmer predicted the position of a number of spectral lines.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:42
Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect.
Albert Michelson and Edward Morley proved that there is no aether.
Isaac Roberts photographed Andromeda.
Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of radio waves and microwaves.
Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz proposed the neuron doctrine, which states that neurons are responsible for all brain activity.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:43
Wilhelm Wien devised Wien's law, which shows that the peak wavelength, and hence colour, of the light emitted by a blackbody is only dependent on its temperature.
Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays.
Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium is radioactive.
Pieter Zeeman discovered that spectral lines can be split if the light travels through a magnetic field.
Joseph John "J. J." Thomson discovered electrons.
Lord Kelvin showed that it would take 20-40 million years for the Earth to cool to its current temperature from a molten state.
Marie and Pierre Sklodowska-Curie discovered polonium and radium and coined the term 'radioactivity'.
Ernest Rutherford discovered that uranium emits two types of radiation: alpha and beta rays.
John Joly showed that it would take 80-100 million years for the oceans to have accumulated their current salt content through mineral erosion.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:44
Max Planck showed that blackbodies absorb and emit light that has 'quantised' energies.
Heinrich Rubens and Ferdinand Kurlbaum showed that Wien's law does not apply to infrared light.
Antoine Henri Becquerel identified beta rays as electrons.
Paul Villard discovered gamma rays.
Hans Spemann cloned salamanders.
Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy showed that elements can naturally radiate enough matter to turn into other elements.
Jacobus Kapteyn introduced the term 'absolute magnitude'.
Joseph John "J. J." Thomson proposed the 'plum pudding' model of the atom.
Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect by showing that all electromagnetic radiation is divided into quanta, or photons.
Albert Einstein published his theory of special relativity.
Albert Einstein predicted that Brownian motion is caused by molecules of water converting heat into kinetic energy.
Ernest Rutherford identified alpha rays as helium atoms that are devoid of electrons.
Albert Einstein predicted that gravity would cause light to be red shifted if it is moving away from an observer, and blue shifted if it is moving towards them.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:45
Henrietta Swan Leavitt devised a way to measure distances to distant stars.
Hermann Minkowski showed that special relativity is best described using the concept of a four-dimensional spacetime.
Geoffrey Ingram Taylor repeated Thomas Young's double-slit experiment on a succession of single photons.
Robert Millikan determined the electric charge of the electron, which allowed him to determine the atomic weight of each element.
William Henry Bragg discovered that the gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials are part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity.
Ejnar Hertzsprung devised the H-R diagram.
Jean Perrin proved that atoms exist, and verified John Dalton's theory that elements are composed of atoms of identical size.
Ernest Rutherford disproved J. J. Thomson's theory of the atom by showing that atoms are mostly composed of empty space.
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson invented the cloud chamber.
Henry Norris Russell devised the H-R diagram.
Frederick Soddy predicted the existence of isotopes.
Johannes Stark and Antonino Lo Surdo showed that spectral lines can also be split by electric fields.
John Watson developed behaviourism.
Niels Bohr developed a theory of the atom that explains why spectral lines form.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:46
Arnold Sommerfeld revised the Bohr model of the atom, adding the azimuthal quantum number, l.
Albert Einstein published his theory of general relativity.
Heber Curtis showed that Andromeda is not just an ordinary cluster of stars because it contains more novas - particularly bright stars - than the Milky Way.
Ernest Rutherford proved that you can turn one element into another by adding or removing matter from the atoms' nucleus.
Harlow Shapley measured the diameter of the Milky Way.
Arthur Stanley Eddington confirmed general relativity.
Ernest Rutherford discovered protons.
Irving Langmuir showed that atoms can share electrons, and this is the basis for all molecular chemistry.
Arnold Sommerfeld revised the Bohr model of the atom again, adding the magnetic quantum number, ml.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:47
Arthur Compton confirmed that the momentum of light is quantised.
Alexander Friedmann showed that the universe could be expanding.
Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach revised the Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the atom, adding another quantum number, known as spin.
Jacobus Kapteyn described the Milky Way as lens-shaped, and showed that it increases in density towards the centre.
Satyendra Nath Bose introduced Bose-Einstein statistics for bosons.
Louis de Broglie showed that electrons can exhibit both wave and particle-like behaviour, just like light.
Wolfgang Pauli devised the Pauli exclusion principle.
Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan developed matrix mechanics.
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin used spectroscopy to show that the majority of the Sun's mass is made of hydrogen and helium.
Werner Heisenberg published his uncertainty principle.
Max Born proposed the Born rule.
Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg developed the collapse approach to quantum mechanics.
Erwin Schrödinger published his quantum wave equation.
Bertil Lindblad showed that the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy, and predicted that the Sun orbits at just over 200 km/s.
Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac introduced Fermi-Dirac statistics for fermions.
Edwin Hubble categorised galaxies according to their appearance.
Paul Dirac coined the term 'QED'.
Louis de Broglie showed that all matter exhibits the same wave-particle duality as light.
Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold showed that the genetic information needed for cloning is held in the nucleus of cells.
Paul Dirac showed that antimatter exists, and provided a theoretical description of spin when he created the first quantum field theory of electromagnetism.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:48
Edwin Hubble proved that the universe is expanding.
Robert d'Escourt Atkinson and Fritz Houtermans suggested that a large amount of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together.
Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto.
Wolfgang Pauli predicted the existence of the neutrino.
Paul Dirac showed that if electric charges are quantised, then magnetic monopoles must exist.
James Chadwick proved the existence of the neutron.
Ernest Lawrence and Milton Stanley Livingston invented the cyclotron particle accelerator.
Werner Heisenberg suggested that protons and neutrons are charged and neutral versions of the same particle.
Ernest Walton and John Cockcroft split the atom by firing protons at lithium, which split it into two alpha particles.
Ernst Öpik suggested that long-period comets, like comet Hale-Bopp, might originate from the Oort Cloud.
Carl David Anderson discovered antielectrons, which he named positrons.
Fritz Zwicky predicted the existence of dark matter.
Walther Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld showed that superconductors expel magnetic fields, this is known as the Meissner effect.
Enrico Fermi published his theory of beta decay, which shows that electrons are emitted from the nucleus of atoms.
Leo Szilard realised that neutrons might mediate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky proposed that supernovae can transform main sequence stars into neutron stars.
Mark Oliphant fused hydrogen atoms together.
Karl Popper suggested that science can overcome the problem of induction with falsification.
Hideki Yukawa developed the first quantum field theory of the strong force, and discovered the pion.
Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen argued that the collapse approach to quantum mechanics is incorrect.
Erwin Schrödinger developed the thought experiment known as 'Schrödinger's cat' in order to show that the collapse approach to quantum mechanics is incorrect.
Carl David Anderson and Seth Neddermeyer discovered the muon.
Alan Turing devised the concept of Turing machines, simple computers.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:49
Eugene Wigner coined the term 'isospin', analogous to spin.
Pyotr Kapitza, John "Jack" Allen, and Don Misener discovered superfluidity.
Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann split uranium.
Hans Bethe and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar showed how stars are fuelled by nuclear fusion.
Markus Fierz formulated the spin-statistics relation, which states that all particles with a whole spin number are bosons, while all particles with fractional spin numbers are fermions.
Donald Kerst invented the betatron particle accelerator.
Leo Szilard and Enrico Fermi created the first artificial nuclear chain reaction.
Kenneth Edgeworth suggested that Pluto might be part of a mass of material that was spaced too far apart to form a single planet.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:50
Walter Baade showed that most star formation occurs in open star clusters in the spiral arms of galaxies.
Erwin Schrödinger suggested that the genetic code can be regarded as a quantum code.
Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty showed that DNA is connected with genetic material.
Edwin McMillan constructed a synchrotron particle accelerator, which had been theorised by Vladimir Veksler.
Lyman Spitzer began campaigning for a space-based telescope.
Hans Bethe showed that the problems with QED can be resolved with renormalisation.
George Dixon Rochester and Clifford Charles Butler discovered the kaon.
The US Air Force launched fruit flies, rye, and cottonseeds into space.
Hendrik Casimir and Dirk Polder discovered the Casimir effect.
The US Air Force launched the first mammal, an anaesthetised rhesus macaque monkey called Albert, towards space.
George Gamow and Ralph Alpher explained how atomic nuclei were made in big bang nucleosynthesis, and predicted the existence of cosmic microwave background radiation.
Léon Rosenfeld coined the term 'lepton' in order to describe fermions that are influenced by the weak, but not the strong, nuclear force.
Fred Hoyle coined the term 'big bang'.
Kurt Gödel suggested that time travel is possible because 'closed timelike curves' can occur.
The US Air Force's Albert II became the first monkey to reach space alive.
Jan Oort popularised the idea of the Oort Cloud.
Louis Essen and A. C. Gordon-Smith determined that light travels at about 299,792 km/s.
Enrico Fermi devised Fermi's paradox, which asks why we have not had contact with aliens.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:51
Gerard Kuiper predicted the existence of the Kuiper Belt.
Donald Glaser invented the bubble chamber.
David Bohm developed the Bohm approach to quantum mechanics, also known as Bohmian mechanics.
Eugene Aserinsky and Nathaniel Kleitman discovered REM sleep.
Murray Gell-Mann and Kazuhiko Nishijima showed that some particles have an intrinsic quality, which they dubbed strangeness.
Clair Cameron Patterson used the radioactive dating of meteorites to show that the Earth is about 4.5 billion years old.
Rosalind Franklin was the first to show that DNA has a double helix structure.
Alfred Jules Ayer suggested that determinism is not incompatible with free will.
Fred Hoyle showed how stars can synthesise all of the elements up to iron, after which they explode in a supernova, which creates even heavier elements.
Antiprotons were discovered by Emilio Segre and Owen Chamberlain.
Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines proved that both electrons and antineutrinos are emitted during beta decay.
Tsung-Dao Lee, Chen Ning Yang, and Chien-Shiung Wu showed that interactions involving the weak nuclear force are not symmetrical under parity transformations.
Ullin Place developed identity theory, which suggests that particular states of the mind are identical to particular states of the brain.
Paul Kuroda suggested that nuclear fission might also exist in nature, since nuclear chain reactions only require natural materials.
The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.
Hugh Everett III devised the Everett approach to quantum mechanics, also known as the many worlds or many minds approach.
John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer showed that superconductivity can be explained if electrons form a single quantum wave, made of pairs of electrons.
The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2, which carried Laika, the first animal to be put into orbit.
CERN's first particle accelerator - the Synchrocyclotron (SC) - was turned on.
John Gurdon was the first to successfully clone an animal using Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).
Both NASA and the Soviet Union made multiple failed attempts to send a spacecraft to the Moon.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:52
The Soviet Union’s Luna 2 was the first spacecraft to reach the Moon's surface, and Luna 3 was the first spacecraft to photograph the far side of the Moon.
Noam Chomsky showed that behaviourism cannot explain how people can produce an infinite variety of sentences, and suggested that there must be internal mental structures.
Gérard de Vaucouleurs developed a new way to classify galaxies.
Identity theory was extended by Jack Smart.
The first animals were successfully returned from orbit by the Soviet Union, these included the dogs Belka and Strelka.
The Soviet Union sent the first robotic space probe to Venus, Venera 1. This was the first probe to be sent to another planet.
Claus Jönsson performed Thomas Young's double-slit experiment with electrons.
The first SETI meeting was held.
Eugene Wigner extended the 'Schrödinger's cat' thought experiment to include another observer, Wigner's friend.
Yuri Gagarin became the first person to travel to space and orbit the Earth.
Robert Dicke developed the weak anthropic principle.
Leon Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, and Jack Steinberger detected the muon neutrino.
The Soviet Union launched the first probe to Mars, Mars 1.
The Higgs mechanism was proposed by Philip Warren Anderson.
Riccardo Giacconi, Herb Gursky, Bruno Rossi, and Frank Paolini discovered the first X-ray source outside of the Solar System.
Lev Okun coined the term 'hadron' in order to describe particles that experience the strong nuclear force.
Jack Smart devised the no-miracles argument. This states that we should infer that scientific theories are true because, historically, science has been very successful.
James Cronin and Val Fitch showed that interactions involving the weak nuclear force sometimes violate CP symmetry.
NASA's Mariner 4 produced the first images of another planet ever to be returned from deep space.
Oscar Greenberg and Yoichiro Nambu showed that quarks transmit the strong nuclear force.
Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson accidently discovered Gamow and Alpher's cosmic microwave background radiation.
Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig showed that hadrons are composed of quarks, and developed the 'standard model' of particle physics.
Gordon Moore devised Moore's Law, which states that the number of transistors on a microprocessor doubles every eighteen months.
Jerry Fodor developed functionalism, this means anything that performs the function of a mind, is a mind, and is therefore conscious.
John Stewart Bell devised a way to theoretically test for a hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:53
The Soviet Union’s Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to successfully land on the Moon.
The Soviet Union’s Venera 3 crash-landed on Venus, becoming the first human-made object to strike the surface of another planet.
Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish discovered pulsars.
Simon Kochen and Ernst Specker showed that a hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics cannot be correct.
The Soviet Union’s Venera 4 landed on Venus becoming the first human-made device to successfully land on another planet.
Sheldon Lee Glashow, Steven Weinberg, and Abdus Salam developed electroweak theory.
NASA launched Apollo 8, which became the first crewed spacecraft to orbit the Moon.
Georges Charpak invented the wire chamber.
The up, down, and strange quarks were discovered using the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC).
The internet was introduced to the public, although it did not contain websites.
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to walk on the Moon, with NASA's Apollo 11. Apollo 12 was launched four months later.
Apollo 13 was launched, its mission was aborted after two days, and the crew returned home safely.
Heinz-Dieter Zeh developed decoherence theory.
Gravitational time dilation was first observed when Joseph Hafele and Richard Keating flew four atomic clocks twice around the world on a commercial plane.
The Soviet Union launched the first space station, Salyut 1.
Apollo 14 and 15 were launched.
Thomas Nagel argued that there is no definite answer to how many minds we have.
The Soviet probe Mars 2 became the first human-made object to reach the surface of Mars.
NASA's Mariner 9 became the first spacecraft to successfully orbit Mars.
Evidence of natural self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions was found in uranium mines in Oklo in Gabon, Africa, dating back two billion years.
Apollo 16 and 17 were launched.
Stuart Freedman and John Clause showed that information does seem to be sent instantaneously in quantum mechanics.
NASA's Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 probes were launched.
Walter Fiers and his colleagues determined the sequence of a gene, which belonged to a virus.
Viktor Safronov devised the solar nebular disk model, which explained how planets form.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:54
Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa predicted the existence of the top and bottom quarks.
Evidence of the Z boson was discovered by physicists working at CERN.
Christopher Longuet-Higgins coined the term 'cognitive science', cognitive science accepts the neuron doctrine.
NASA launched their first space station, Skylab.
Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created genetically modified, transgenic bacteria.
NASA's Mariner 10 launched towards Mercury.
Stephen Hawking showed that black holes emit Hawking radiation.
Charm quarks were discovered by two independent teams of particle physicists.
Joel Scherk, John Schwarz, and Tamiaki Yoneya showed that string theory predicts the existence of the graviton.
Hilary Putnam extended the no-miracles argument.
NASA launched Viking 1 and Viking 2, which returned the first colour photographs of Mars, and confirmed that Mars had once contained both rain and oceans.
CERN'S Super Proton Synchrotron became the first particle accelerator to cross an international border.
Martin Perl led a team that discovered the tau particle.
NASA's Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes were launched.
Leon Lederman and his team at Fermilab observed the bottom quark.
NASA's Pioneer 1, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, and Pioneer 2, the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, reached Venus.
Gravitational lensing was first observed by Dennis Walsh, Robert Carswell, and Ray Weymann.
Gluons were observed by the TASSO experiment in Germany.
Alan Guth showed that the universe must have gone through a period of rapid expansion, known as inflation.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:55
Viatcheslav Mukhanov and Gennady Chibisov showed that the universe is not perfectly symmetrical because of quantum fluctuations that were present before inflation.
Wojciech Zurek developed decoherence theory.
Larry Laudan developed pessimistic meta-induction. This states that we do not have a good enough reason to believe in theoretical entities because history is full of examples of scientific theories that were later shown to be false.
Alain Aspect verified that information does seem to be sent instantaneously in quantum mechanics.
Hundreds of physicists working at CERN discovered evidence of W and Z bosons in collisions between protons and antiprotons.
Joel Primack, George Blumenthal, and Sandra Moore Faber showed that small objects like stars formed before larger objects like galaxies and galaxy clusters.
Benjamin Libet showed that a persons' brain begins initiating a voluntary act before they consciously decide to do it.
David Deutsch devised the first experimental test to falsify the collapse approach to quantum mechanics, however it is still not practical to implement as it requires artificial intelligence and reversible nanoelectronics.
Abhay Ashtekar devised loop quantum gravity.
Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller discovered superconductivity in a ceramic material at relatively high temperatures.
The Soviet Union launched the Mir space station.
Hans Moravec devised the concept of quantum suicide, which was later extended by Bruno Marchal and Max Tegmark.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:56
David Albert and Barry Loewer coined the term 'many minds' to describe their interpretation of the Everett approach to quantum mechanics.
The first exoplanets were observed by Bruce Campbell, Gordon Walker, and Stephenson Yang.
Carlo Rovelli and Lee Smolin developed loop quantum gravity.
The Soviet Union launched two probes to Mars' moon Phobos: Phobos 1 and Phobos 2.
Physicists working at CERN showed that the Z particle can only decay into three types of neutrino, which suggests that there are probably only three pairs of leptons and quarks.
Michael Lockwood developed a many minds approach to quantum mechanics.
NASA's Galileo spacecraft was launched towards Jupiter.
Colin McGinn suggested that the human mind is incapable of comprehending itself entirely.
The Hubble Space Telescope was launched.
Simon Gandevia and K. Ammon showed that it is possible to influence someone's free choices by stimulating frontal regions of their brain.
The world's first website and server went public.
NASA's Project Magellan mapped the surface of Venus.
The first exoplanets were confirmed by Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail.
David Jewitt and Jane Luu detected the first Kuiper Belt object.
Charles Bennett and a team of researchers at IBM showed that the effects of quantum entanglement allow for teleportation, as long as the object travels at the speed of light and the original copy is destroyed.
Mike Crommie, Chris Lutz, and Don Eigler moved single atoms into quantum corrals.
CERN made the World Wide Web free for anyone who wanted to use it.
Roger Penrose suggested that the force of gravity could cause a quantum wave function to collapse.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:57
The top quark was observed by a team at Fermilab.
Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz discovered the first exoplanet orbiting a main sequence star.
NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous - Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker) was launched.
Rudolph Schild discovered the first planet to be found outside of the Milky Way.
NASA launched the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter, and Mars Pathfinder, data from both missions indicated that Mars might have once been warm and wet, with flowing water.
Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell cloned a sheep using SCNT, which was named Dolly.
NASA, the ESA, and the ASI launched the Cassini spacecraft towards Saturn.
The Hubble Space Telescope was used to show that most galaxies contain supermassive black holes at their centre.
Rainer Plaga devised an experiment to falsify the Bohm approach to quantum mechanics.
The International Space Station began to orbit Earth.
A number of physicists, including Adam Riess and Saul Perlmutter, showed that dark energy is causing the universe to accelerate in its expansion.
Physicists in Europe and the United States teleported a photon about one metre across a room.
Johnjoe McFadden and Jim Al-Khalili provided further evidence that the genetic code can be regarded as a quantum code.
Physicists working at IBM developed a 3-qubit quantum computer.
The tau neutrino was discovered by the DONUT collaboration at Fermilab.
NASA's WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) satellite was launched.
NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter was launched, and later found evidence of frozen water on the Martian surface.
Apoorva Patel showed that the polymerase enzyme, which is involved in the replication of DNA, picks nucleotides in accordance with the Born rule.
Lene Vestergaard Hau used a Bose-Einstein condensate to slow light until it came to a complete stop, while still in a vacuum.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:58
Rainer Schödel discovered a supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.
Daniel Wegner argued that free will can be understood an illusion generated by the brain.
The ESA launched the Mars Express in 2003, which confirmed the presence of frozen water and carbon dioxide at the Martian poles.
JAXA launched the Hayabusa spacecraft towards asteroid 25143 Itokawa.
One of the largest gravitationally bound structures, the Sloan Great Wall, was discovered by John Richard Gott III and Mario Jurić.
The Human Genome Project was completed.
NASA launched the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers, these both successfully landed on Mars, and Opportunity found rocks that are thought to have once been underwater, in a salty sea.
The ESA's Rosetta spacecraft was launched towards comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
Nick Bostrom argued that eventually everyone will exist inside of a simulation.
NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft was launched towards Mercury.
The first hyper-velocity stars were discovered.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was launched towards Mars, it later found evidence of flowing water on the Martian surface.
Simon Saunders and David Wallace developed a many worlds approach to quantum mechanics.
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was used to show that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy.
Shinya Yamanaka created induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
NASA's New Horizons spacecraft was launched towards Pluto.
Harald Atmanspacher showed that there's little evidence that quantum events in the brain affect consciousness.
Graham Fleming and colleagues showed that photosynthesis utilises quantum interactions in order to be more energy efficient.
NASA's Dawn spacecraft was launched towards the asteroid belt.
Ismael Tejero and colleagues showed that quantum tunnelling is utilised by antioxidants, called catechins.
NASA's Phoenix spacecraft was launched towards Mars.
John-Dylan Haynes and his colleagues showed that you can predict a person's free choice up to 10 seconds before they are aware of what they will do.
The Planck satellite was launched.
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was used to show that Saturn has another ring, visible in infrared.
Data from three spacecraft, including India's Chandrayaan 1 probe, confirmed the existence of frozen water on the Moon.
CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was turned on.
NASA's Kepler spacecraft was launched, and has since detected hundreds of planets, including some that could contain life.
Dec 31st 23:59:59:59
Data from NASA's Fermi telescope showed that the Milky Way contains two giant structures known as Fermi bubbles.
NASA's Juno spacecraft was launched towards Jupiter.
The Mars Science Laboratory was launched with its own Rover, Curiosity.
NASA launched a device that will be used to look for evidence of antimatter galaxies.
Physicists working at CERN discovered the Higgs boson.
Thomas Juffmann, and physicists from University of Vienna in Austria, repeated Thomas Young's double-slit experiment on molecules containing over 100 atoms.
Voyager 1 reached the edge of the solar wind, and therefore entered interstellar space.
A human embryo was cloned by Shoukhrat Mitalipov and colleagues using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).
NASA's New Horizons spacecraft reached Pluto.
Data from CERN's LHC led to the discovery of a new class of particles, known as pentaquarks.
Evidence of flowing water was discovered on Mars using data from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
NASA's Juno spacecraft reached Jupiter.
Physicists from the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations discovered gravitational waves.
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